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CHAPTER 2 : CONTINUED! (study mood)

3 branches of the Classical Approaches.


Scientific Management

- by Frederick Winslow Taylor (Father of Scientific Management)

- based on production line time studies.


Principles ;

- Assign all responsibility for the organization of work to managers rather than workers.

- Use scientific methods to determine the one best may performing each task.
- Select the person most suited to each job to perform that job.
- Train the workers to perform the job correctly.
- Monitor work performance to ensure that specified work procedures are followed correctly and that appropriate results are achieved.
- Provide further support by planning work assignments and eliminating interruptions.


Benefits ;


- Its rational approach to the organization of work enabled tasks and processes to be measured with a considerable degree of accuracy.
- Measurement of tasks and processes provide useful information on which to base improvements in working methods.
- By improving working methods it bought enormous increases in productivity.
- It enabled employees to be paid by results and to take advantage of incentive systems.
- It stimulated management in adopting a more positive roles in leadership at the shop floor level.
- It contributed to major improvements in physical working conditions for employees.
- It provided the foundations on which modern work study and other qualitative techniques could be soundly based.

Drawbacks ;


- It reduced the worker's role to that of rigid adherence to methods and procedures over which he had no discretion.
- It led to the fragmentation of work on account of its emphasis on the analysis and organization of individual tasks or operations.
- It generated a 'carrot and stick' approach to the motivation of employees by enabling pay to be geared tightly to output.
- It put the planning and control of workplace activities exclusively in the hands of the management.
- It ruled out any realistic bargaining about wage-rates since every job was measured, timed and rated 'scientifically'.
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Administrative Principles Management

- Henri Fayol (French Industrialist)

Principles ;

Division of labor - the more people specialize, the more efficiency they can perform their work.
Authority - managers have the right, the authority, to give orders to get things done.
Discipline - members of an organization need to respect the rules and agreements that govern it.
Unity of command - each employee must receiver instructions about a particular operation from only one person to avoid conflicting instructions and confusion. 
Unity of direction - managers should coordinate the efforts of employees working on projects, but only one should be responsible for an employee's behavior.
Common goal - the interests of individual employees should not take precedence over the interests of the entire organization.
Remuneration - pay for work done should be fair to both the employee and employer.
Centralization - managers should retain final responsibility but should also give their subordinates enough authority to do their jobs properly. 
Scalar chain - a single uninterrupted line of authority should run rank to rank from top management to the lowest level position in the company.
Order - materials and people should be in the right place at the right time. People should be in the jobs or positions best suited to them.
Equity - managers should be both friendly and fair to their subordinates.
Stability and tenure of staff - a high rate of employee turnover is not efficient.
Initiative - subordinates should be given the freedom to formulate and carry out their own plans.
Esprit de corps - promoting team spirits gives the organization a sense of unity. 

Criticism to Scientific Management ;

- Fail to appreciate the social context of work and higher needs of workers.
- Manager called it unwarranted interference in managerial prerogatives.
- Workers resisted it. In Taylor's testimony in 1912, he said that unions are really not needed.
- Fails to acknowledge the variance among individuals.
- Fails to recognize the ideas and suggestions of workers.
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Bureaucratic Organization / Management.

- Max Weber (German Social historian).
Characteristics ; 

Rules - formal guidelines for the behavior of employees while they are on the jobs.
Impersonality - all employees are evaluated according to rules and objectives data such sales or units produced.
Division of labor - the process dividing duties into simpler, more specialized tasks.
Hierarchical structure - a well defined hierarchy helps control the behavior of employees by making clear to each exactly where he/she stands in the organization.
Authority structure - determines who has the right to make decisions of varying importance at different levels within the organization.
Lifelong career commitment - job security is guaranteed as long as the employee is technically qualified and performs satisfactorily.
Rationality - managers in a bureaucratic management system operate logically and scientifically with all decisions leading directly to achieving the organization's goals.

Source : Principles and Practice of Management (Text book).


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